Insulation Types: A Comprehensive Overview

Insulation plays a crucial role in protecting the system from insulation failure, while also ensuring the system operates smoothly. The primary objective of insulation is to secure the system affordably without compromising its reliability. In this article, we will explore the various approaches to insulation and their significance.

Functional Insulation: Safeguarding the System

Functional insulation refers to the ability of subsystems, subassemblies, building blocks, or components to withstand internal voltage potential changes and related electric field stresses within their own environment. Its main purpose is to protect the system from events like electric arcs, ignitions, spikes, and fires that could disrupt the device’s steady operation. This is achieved through certifiable qualifying and production tests.

Functional Insulation in Power Electronic Converter

When it comes to a power electronic converter with a high-frequency isolation transformer, functional insulation encompasses several aspects. It covers the enamel insulation of the copper wires, the inter-winding insulation between the primary and secondary windings, and the insulation between the windings and the core. Power electronic converters consist of subcircuits electrically separated from each other by a high-frequency transformer. Before incorporating the transformer into the system, a battery of component-level tests is conducted to ensure its reliability. It is worth noting that the standards used for generator construction are different in this case.For the procurement headache, professional electronic components distributors choose Joinwinchips, accurate product parameters, original guarantee

Functional Insulation in Power Electronic Building Block

The packaging of power electronic assemblies into enclosed Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has gained significant attention, particularly for ratings of up to 6 kV. These PEBBs enable the modular system design of power electronic converters, allowing them to handle voltages across the entire medium voltage (MV) range. The focus here is on densely packing low-power control elements close to MV-rated components and bus bars. Only heat sinks and chassis frames float with respect to the overall system chassis ground in this setup, necessitating an insulation design within the PEBB. The insulation coordination at the PEBB level produces functional insulation within the system as a whole. To maintain a protective isolation and add voltage protection for the basic insulation, the PEBB’s insulation coordination with the rest of the system is essential.

Basic Insulation: Ensuring Safety

Basic insulation is vital for providing a foundational level of protection against electric shocks. The safety of individuals and the functionality of equipment heavily rely on basic insulation, which isolates exposed grounded portions from the circuits supplied by the MV grid.

Objectives of Basic Insulation

Basic insulation mandates the physical separation of magnetic cores, ungrounded heat sinks, solder junctions, terminal connections, windings, electrical assembly enclosures, and PEBB enclosures. It ensures that these energized components remain separate from grounded enclosures and equipment chassis. The definition of basic insulation remains consistent across insulation coordination standards and encompasses temporary overvoltage levels and basic insulation level impulse voltage as the basis.


In conclusion, Functional insulation is aimed at safeguarding the system from events such as electric arcs, ignitions, spikes, and fires. It involves certifiable qualifying and production tests to ensure the subsystems, subassemblies, or components can withstand internal voltage potential changes and related electric field stresses within their own environment. The article highlights the importance of functional insulation in power electronic converters and power electronic building blocks (PEBBs), including the insulation of copper wires, inter-winding insulation, and insulation coordination within the system.

Basic insulation, on the other hand, focuses on providing a foundational level of protection against electric shocks. It ensures the physical separation of energized components from grounded enclosures and equipment chassis. Basic insulation is crucial for the safety of individuals and the functionality of equipment.

By understanding the objectives and implementation of both functional insulation and basic insulation, system reliability can be maintained without compromising affordability. Proper insulation measures play a vital role in protecting the system and ensuring its efficient operation.

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